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In the case of bomber Geschwader, an Ergänzungsgruppe training group might be attached to a Geschwader as the fifth Gruppe and designated 'V' Roman numeral 5.
Although all Gruppen in a Geschwader performed the same role, they were not always equipped with the same aircraft. This was more prevalent in fighter Geschwader , but did occur in bomber units as well.
Some Gruppen of a fighter Geschwader would be equipped with Messerschmitt Bf s, while others would be equipped with Focke-Wulf Fw s.
There were several types of Gruppen acting in specialized autonomous roles, many centered around either reconnaissance or maritime-involved duties.
They were:. Other types of Gruppe -sized units of various types existed within the Luftwaffe structure as well:. Each Gruppe comprised three or four Staffeln , but by late a fourth Staffel was usually added to fighter units, making the established strength of the unit approximately 65 to 70 aircraft, although during the war years operational strength tended to fluctuate greatly.
Personnel strength varied between 35 and aircrew, and to ground personnel. During the mid-war years a fourth Gruppe was introduced in many Geschwader , initially as an operational training unit for new aircrew.
However, these Gruppen soon became additional front-line units, performing the same tasks as their sister formations, while new Ergänzungseinheiten , or operational training units, were formed and took up their tasks.
A Staffel usually had nine to 12 aircraft. Others had as few as five or six aircraft due to losses. The commanding officer of a Staffel was known as a Staffelkapitän and had the rank of Hauptmann , Oberleutnant or sometimes Leutnant.
Staffeln were numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals within a Geschwader irrespective of the Gruppe they came under.
The Staffel designation would be similar to that of the Gruppe except for the Arabic numerals. For example, Staffel 6 of Jagdgeschwader 27 would be designated 6.
The Staffeln of Gruppe I would be numbered 1, 2 and 3. Those of Gruppe II would be numbered 4, 5 and 6.
This was continued for the rest of the Gruppen. When a Staffel was transferred from one group to another or from one Geschwader to another, it would be re-numbered accordingly.
The Staffel usually had a few vehicles allocated to it, and a mobile Fliegerhorstkompanie air station company to carry out minor repairs.
These were usually named after and attached to a Geschwader. The number of ground staff varied depending on its type, with about for a fighter unit and 80 in a bomber unit — a smaller number of personnel were required in the bomber units as many of the servicing functions were carried out by attached units provided by the local Luftgau or "Air District".
The service test units often known as Erprobungskommando could also be of Staffel or Gruppe organizational size, as well as existing outside of any such "set" unit size as a Gruppe or Staffel — the Heinkel He was service-tested by a Staffel -sized unit, known as Erprobungsstaffel ,  frequently using the RLM airframe type number for the number of the unit testing the aircraft bearing it.
There were a few types of Staffeln acting in specialized autonomous, or semi-autonomous roles, if integrally attached to a Gruppe or Geschwader for differing duties from the main unit.
Some of these were:. The Luftwaffe began to set up their own nocturnal harassment Staffel-sized forces known as Störkampfstaffeln. Eventually Gruppe -sized Nachtschlachtgruppen were used for the same general purpose as the Soviet units.
The Luftwaffe's own harassment aviation units also used similarly obsolete aircraft, but of German design. The Heinkel He 46 , Arado Ar 66 , Focke-Wulf Fw 56 and even the standard training biplane, the Gotha Go , were all deployed in their efforts at attempting to emulate the success of the Soviets.
A few specialized Staffel sized units existed within the Luftwaffe for such specialized tasks as weather observation Wettererkundungsstaffeln , contracted to Wekusta , specialized weaponry a so-called Staffel 92 was meant to be equipped with the cannon-armed Ju 88P -series of bomber destroyer fighters and even outside the actual Luftwaffe, such as aircraft factory-operated defense Staffeln , at least one of which even operated the Me late in the war.
A Staffel was divided into three Schwärme singular: Schwarm , "swarm" , consisting of four to six aircraft.
Each bomber Schwarm at full strength, six aircraft was divided into a Kette "chain" of three aircraft. A fighter Schwarm four aircraft was divided into two Rotten singular: Rotte , "pack" of two aircraft, equivalent to a pair in the English-speaking world.
It had two aircraft flying in a loose pair called a 'Pack' German : Rotte. Two pairs constituted a German : Schwarm. The four aircraft were flown in what was called the "Finger-four" formation.
These aircraft were spread apart so that each pilot was offered maximum visibility. This arrangement was so successful that Soviet pilots in the Spanish Civil War followed the same technique.
However, on returning home, they had to revert to the standard "V" formation. In this formation, where each aircraft flew in positions similar to the fingers of an open hand hence the name , the leader German : Rottenführer was at the front, while on his left wingtip was his partner from the Rotte.
The other Rotte was on the right wingtip of the leader. The partner in the second Rotte being on the right wingtip of his partner.
The Rotte fighting pair also added to its flexibility, as a Schwarm could easily break into two Rotte pairs without losing its fighting ability.
The Rottenführer could attack enemy aircraft, leaving his wingman to watch for the enemy. It was much more flexible than the rigid three-aircraft "Vic" formation the RAF used at the start of the war.
In the Schwarm the aircraft had plenty of space to maneuver, so they were free to scan the horizon for enemy aircraft rather than focusing on maintaining a close formation.
Luftwaffe controlled the bulk of German anti-aircraft artillery commonly called Flak since the s. The smallest tactical unit of anti-aircraft artillery was a battery German : Batterie.
Battalions would be "light" leichte , "mixed" gemischte , or "heavy" schwere , referring to the size of guns in their batteries.
The battalions were variously organized into regiments Flak-Regimenter , brigades Flak-Brigaden e. Flak-Division and flak corps Flakkorps , although the hierarchy was neither very strict or very stable throughout the history.
Late in the war, AA units were bolstered by the use of foreigners and German youths. The number of transport battalions varied depending on location and need of transport of the divisions.
The first of these was formed in Berlin on 1 July as the Air Defense Command Luftverteidigungskommando but later renamed as 1st. Flak Division.
One of the unique characteristics of the Luftwaffe as opposed to independent air forces of other nations , was the possession of an organic paratrooper force; the Fallschirmjäger.
These were established in They saw action in their proper role during —, most notably in the capture of the Belgian Army fortress at Eben—Emael and the Battle of the Netherlands in May They also took part in the invasion of Crete in May More than 4, Fallschirmjäger were killed during the Crete operation.
Consequently, these forces were only used for smaller-scale operations, such as the successful rescue of Benito Mussolini , the then-deposed dictator of Italy, in Fallschirmjäger formations were used as standard infantry in all theaters of the war.
As the Prussian Minister of the Interior, Göring formed an elite police force in early It consisted of men with its headquarters in Berlin.
After several name changes within the following six months, it was named the Landespolizeigruppe General Göring. During the next two years, it grew to become the Regiment General Göring.
After the formation of the Luftwaffe was announced, Göring transferred this unit to the German air arm. At that time, it consisted of the following units: .
In late , volunteers for the Paratroop Corps were combined in the I. This along with the Pionier-Kompanie formed the IV. They still remained part of the Regiment Hermann Göring until March In March they were renamed I.
In late , the regiment had expanded even further and consisted of the following units: . In order to achieve this, another division called Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Division 2 Hermann Göring was formed.
This was staffed by fresh recruits from both the army and the Luftwaffe. These were predominantly formed from volunteer or surplus Luftwaffe personnel.
Their goal was to maintain airfield security against Soviet Partisan activity. Each regiment consisted of four battalions.
Each battalion consisted of three light companies and one heavy company. They also had a headquarters company and one signals platoon. There was also an anti-tank battalion.
It had two companies equipped with nine 5 cm PaK 38 and one company equipped with captured Russian 7.
Due to a lack of training in ground combat skills, these regiments were limited to defensive operations. Although intended to act as a single unit, the divisions were separated and served with army or with Fallschirmjäger units.
While in the field, these units were tactically under the command of the army but administratively still under Luftwaffe control.
The strength of a Luftwaffe Field Division was half that of an army infantry division. It did have a mixed Flak battalion and an artillery battalion.
The composition of the artillery battalion varied. It had one heavy battery with three 20 mm cannons and four 88 mm guns along with twenty-seven 20 mm anti-aircraft guns.
It had a headquarters staff as well as signals support troops. The Luftwaffe Field Division had a minimal administrative staff along with logistical support personnel in pioneer, medical and supply companies along with maintenance and other staff.
Although the division gave the impression of strength, the reality was that it was barely the size of an army brigade.
But the fighting strength was only 2, Although the army was short of manpower, Göring blocked the transfer of surplus Luftwaffe personnel to be trained for the army and instead increased the number of field divisions.
Besides the lack of training and combat experience of the Luftwaffe commanders, the army had to supply equipment to these units.
Instead of being used on quieter sections of the various fronts to relieve army units for use elsewhere, they were put into action where the Germans were hard pressed and suffered accordingly.
Aircraft markings were used to distinguish friend from foe. There were several changes in identification markings from until the end of the war in From to , civilian aircraft were painted with a bright red horizontal band with a black Hakenkreuz swastika in a white circle superimposed, shown only on the vertical stabilizer.
From , the Balkenkreuz national cross with four equal arms , basically inherited from the early spring period of Luftstreitkräfte service when it first appeared in World War I, was applied in black and white, with somewhat different proportions one-quarter as wide as its length from end-to-end than the WW I-period insignia, and without the white border outlining the "ends" of the cross, the white borders forming four right-angled "flanks" around the central black core cross.
It was painted on the fuselage about halfway between the wing and the tail and on the upper and lower sides of each wing. The flanks came in two regulation dimension formats, with much narrower flanks before July used in all six positions on an airframe — a wider-flanked variation, for use underneath wings and on the fuselage sides, came into use from July onwards.
This helped in immediate identification. During the Spanish Civil War, where the Luftwaffe participated through the Condor Legion , aircraft were repainted with a white Andrea's Cross in a black circle.
The tail was all white with Andrea's Cross on the rudder. In Germany itself, the Balkenkreuz was once again used as the national insignia on the fuselage and wings in six locations, initially with a very narrow set of four white "flanks", which were widened around —39, with the usual Hakenkreuz on the vertical tail surfaces, usually on the fixed fin, but sometimes instead on the rudder as done on some Arado -designed aircraft and on airframe designs that either had a small fin or one braced with struts.
Medical aircraft were painted with a red cross on a white circular background. Later on in the war when camouflage was more necessary, the Balkenkreuz had only a white or black outline in a "low-visibility" format, consisting only of the four right-angle "flanks" that had previously bordered the now-absent central black core cross of the Balkenkreuz ,  with the Hakenkreuz also frequently being done with a white or black border only, omitting the central black shape.
Until , civilian aircraft only had a registration painted on. This was usually the letter D for Deutschland national identification letter in use from before , followed by three or four numbers.
After , military planes carried, on the fuselage, an alphanumeric four-character Geschwaderkennung code with the Balkenkreuz after the first two characters, always consisting of one letter and one number in a unique combination for a specific Geschwader or Gruppe.
The third letter always designated the individual aircraft ID within a Staffel , while the fourth letter designated the Staffel itself within the larger Geschwader or Gruppe unit it belonged to.
In the Luftwaffe, there were centralized regulations on field camouflage patterns. In practice, these were either amended or ignored.
Units in various areas used their own way of painting the aircraft excepting the Geschwaderkennung alphanumeric unit identifiers.
Units in the very northern parts of Europe used pale blue wavy lines on a gray background. Night units of both fighters and bombers tended to color their aircraft completely black with a light brown or light gray pattern.
The irregular lines were meant to match the intricate patterns of ocean waves usually called "wave-mirror" camouflage as seen from the air, especially for interceptions of RAF night bombers over the North Sea.
The nighttime skies over Germany usually had some light from either moonlight or even from city lights reflecting upwards into the skies , making a light base color effective for night fighters against sometimes cloudy or foggy skies below the night fighters' usual combat altitudes.
By , as economic conditions tightened, front line units used captured allied paint where available. Central control over camouflage relaxed even further.
With units disbanding and reforming frequently, intricate patterns became less common. Dark green became more or less the standard.
With deteriorating conditions and scarce supplies, various motley color schemes were used. This changed only for those day fighter and "destroyer" units that flew as part of the Defense of the Reich Reichsverteidigung campaign.
Later in these units adopted the pattern of a distinct color band, or two-colored bands, around the aft fuselage, with each Geschwader usually having their own unique combination.
Single engine fighter units used chevrons to represent the pilot's rank or seniority. Bars, points or crosses to represent the Gruppe to which it belonged, and a number representing the Jagdgeschwader were also utilized.
The Geschwaderkommodore of a fighter geschwader was represented by two chevrons and a vertical bar. The Gruppenkommandeur was represented by two chevrons; while a Gruppe Technical Officer would have a single chevron and a circle.
For a staff pilot, there would be a thick black line all around the aircraft. Some day fighter units also used geometric patterns of alternating black and white horizontal stripes on the engine cowling, or checkerboard patterns, also on the cowling.
During the Defense of the Reich campaign, there was a general adoption of a system of colored rear fuselage bands, with unique combinations assigned to each Jagdgeschwader engaged in the campaign.
Use of these colored fuselage bands was generally abandoned by mid At one point, a color scheme that painted the rudder in white, similar to what had been done during the North African Campaign , was trialled for units dedicated to Defense of the Reich duties,   which also included the aforementioned Reichsverteidigung wing-code rear fuselage stripes for each individual Jagdgeschwader.
The unofficial way to represent one's unit was the unit badge. These were solely at the discretion of the commanding officer, so badges of all shapes, sizes and subjects appeared.
On the Eastern Front, they were officially banned in later years as they provided intelligence to the enemy. The full four-character code was usually shown on the fuselage sides, sometimes with the individual aircraft letter repeated under the wings.
Gruppe and Staffel -sized units could also have their own unique codes of this type, most often used for reconnaissance and maritime aviation Gruppen and Wekusta weather observation Staffeln , with Staffel sized units using the four-character alphanumeric code almost always using an "H" as the fourth and last character.
Late in the war, the first two characters of the Geschwaderkennung code designating the geschwader were depicted on the fuselage sides in a much reduced size, possibly as a "low-visibility" security measure.
The code tended though not always , to be omitted altogether by From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Organization of the Luftwaffe — Main article: Luftwaffe.
Main article: Oberkommando der Luftwaffe. Main article: Finger-four. Main article: Fallschirmjäger. Main article: Luftwaffe Field Division.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bernage, F.
Heinkel He Shrewsbury, England: Airlife Publishing. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 24 December Normally, the German Army Heer anti-aircraft units were called Batterie as well, except the units of anti-aircraft machine guns which were called Kompanie , in the infantry style.
Heinkel He — — Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing. Retrieved 21 November Aircraft in Profile No. Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 29 March Bickers, Richard Townshend Von Richthofen: The Legend Evaluated.
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Lepage, Jean Denis G. Aircraft of the Luftwaffe — An Illustrated History. Mitcham, Samuel W. Stackpole Books. Nielsen, Andreas Ayer Publishing.
Ruffner, Kevin Conley Luftwaffe Field Divisions — Osprey Publishing. Stedman, Robert; Mike Chappell Mayer History of World War II.
Octopus Books. United States War Department Handbook on German Military Forces. LSU Press. Weal, John Jagdgeschwader 27 Afrika.
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